# Detecting Superbubbles in Assembly Graphs

Kunihiko Sadakane and Tetsuo Shibuya do very creative work on algorithm development, and we covered their papers in several earlier commentaries.

Succinct de Bruijn Graphs from Tetsuo Shibuyas Group.

More on Succint de Bruijn Graph

@sjackman forwarded the following paper from the same group that the readers will find interesting.

We introduce a new concept of a subgraph class called a superbubble for analyzing assembly graphs, and propose an efficient algorithm for detecting it. Most assembly algorithms utilize assembly graphs like the de Bruijn graph or the overlap graph constructed from reads. From these graphs, many assembly algorithms first detect simple local graph structures (motifs), such as tips and bubbles, mainly to find sequencing errors. These motifs are easy to detect, but they are sometimes too simple to deal with more complex errors. The superbubble is an extension of the bubble, which is also important for analyzing assembly graphs. Though superbubbles are much more complex than ordinary bubbles, we show that they can be efficiently enumerated. We propose an average-case linear time algorithm (i.e., O(n+m) for a graph with n vertices and m edges) for graphs with a reasonable model, though the worst- case time complexity of our algorithm is quadratic (i.e., O(n(n+m))). Moreover, the algorithm is practically very fast: Our experiments show that our algorithm runs in reasonable time with a single CPU core even against a very large graph of a whole human genome.

On the same topic, here is another interesting paper forwarded by @sjackman:

We present a new algorithm for enumerating bubbles with length constraints in directed graphs. This problem arises in transcriptomics, where the question is to identify all alternative splicing events present in a sample of mRNAs sequenced by RNA-seq. This is the first polynomial-delay algorithm for this problem and we show that in practice, it is faster than previous approaches. This enables us to deal with larger instances and therefore to discover novel alternative splicing events, especially long ones, that were previously overseen using existing methods.

They are all related to WABI 2013.